Ageing is Mandatory. So here are the important nutrients, Risk factors and control measures.
Ageing is Mandatory. So here are the important nutrients, Risk factors and control measures. Nutrient Changes occurs in..
Energy : Basal metabolic rate decreases with age because of changes in body composition. Energy needs decrease ;3% per decade in adults. Encourage nutrient-dense foods in amounts appropriate for caloric needs.
Protein : 0.8 g/kg minimum
Minimal change with age but research is not conclusive.
Requirements vary with chronic disease, decreased absorption, and synthesis.
Protein intake should not be routinely increased; excess protein could unnecessarily stress aging kidneys.
Carbohydrates : 45%-65% total calories
Men 30 g fiber, Women 21 g fiber
Constipation may be a serious concern for many. Emphasize complex carbohydrates: legumes, vegetables, whole grains, fruits to provide fiber, essential vitamins, minerals. Increase dietary fiber to improve laxation especially in older adults.
Lipids : 20%-35% total calories
Heart disease is a common diagnosis. Overly severe restriction of dietary fats alters taste, texture, and enjoyment of food; can negatively affect overall diet, weight, and quality of life.
Emphasize healthy fats rather restricting fat.
Vitamins and minerals : Understanding vitamin and mineral requirements, absorption, use, and excretion with aging has increased but much remains unknown. Encourage nutrient-dense foods in amounts appropriate for caloric needs.
Oxidative and inflammatory processes affecting aging reinforce the central role of micronutrients, especially antioxidants.
Vitamin B12 : 2.4 mg Risk of deficiency increases because of low intakes of vitamin B12, and decline in gastric acid, which facilitates B12 absorption.
Those 50 and older should eat foods fortified with the crystalline form of vitamin B12 such as in fortified cereals or supplements.
Vitamin D 600-800 IU* Risk of deficiency increases as synthesis is less efficient; skin responsiveness as well as exposure to sunlight decline; kidneys are less able to convert D3 to active hormone form. As many as 30%-40% of those with hip fractures are vitamin D insufficient.
Supplementation may be necessary and is inexpensive.
A supplement is indicated in virtually all institutionalized older adults.
Folate : 400 µg May lower homocysteine levels; possible risk marker for atherothrombosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.
Fortification of grain products has improved folate status.
When supplementing with folate, must monitor B12 levels.
Calcium : 1200 mg Dietary requirement may increase because of decreased absorption; only 4% of women and 10% of men age 60 and older meet daily recommendation from food sources alone.
Recommend naturally occurring and fortified foods. Supplementation may be necessary. However, in older women, high intakes may be occurring with supplements.
Potassium : 4700 mg Potassium-rich diet can blunt the effect of sodium on blood pressure.
Recommend meeting potassium recommendation with food, especially fruits and vegetables.
Sodium :1500 mg Risk of hypernatremia caused by dietary excess and dehydration
Risk of hyponatremia caused by fluid retention Newer evidence based on direct health outcomes is inconsistent with the recommendation to lower dietary sodium in the general population, including older adults, to 1500 mg per day.
Zinc : Men 11 mg, Women 8 mg
Low intake associated with impaired immune function, anorexia, loss of sense of taste, delayed wound healing, and pressure ulcer development.
Encourage food sources: lean meats, oysters, dairy products, beans, peanuts, tree nuts, and seeds. Water Hydration status can easily be problematic. Dehydration causes decreased fluid intake, decreased kidney function, increased losses caused by increased urine output from medications (laxatives, diuretics).
Symptoms: electrolyte imbalance, altered drug effects, headache, constipation, blood pressure change, dizziness, confusion, dry mouth and nose. Encourage fluid intake of at least 1500 ml/day or 1 ml per calorie consumed.
Risk increases because of impaired sense of thirst, fear of incontinence, and dependence on others to get beverages. Dehydration is often unrecognized; it can present as falls, confusion, change in level of consciousness, weakness or change in functional status, or fatigue
An Article by Nutrition Student ‘Syeda Ruhina Raushan’